Research on Ekadashi.  

Conclusions:

​ This article is a detailed study on Ekadashi. Supplements supported by evidence are welcome. It is not rational to spend time on the rest. 

Below are the conclusions  with navigation through the evidence from the texts.  Be sure to read to the end.  You will be very surprised.  

  1. Ekadashi tradition  - not Vedic ,  as stated elsewhere but much later.​ In short, in addition to modern texts, it is described only in the Puranas .

  2. In the Ramayana and Mahabharata, there is not a word about Ekadashi either.

  3. Even most of the Puranas say  the glories of performing Dvadashi after Ekadashi. Thus, it is not the fast itself that is important, but the day that follows it, when the mind of the fasting person is cleared for prayer.

  4. The first  mentions on stone inscriptions - not earlier  200 BC n. e .

  5. The exact, everywhere published hours of exit from the post are not described anywhere.

  6. Nowhere is it written that you can not eat legumes . This is a false mis-translation. Most sources say that you should neither eat nor drink.   There are still some indulgences, but completely different.

  7. There is also nowhere about the influence of the moon on the mind.

  8. The reason for all this is that only some of the texts were studied, while others were set aside.  

 

Vedas and Ekadashi.

  • In the four Vedas, incl. brahmanah,  Ramayana,  Mahabharata and Harivamsa do not mention the term "Ekadashi-vrata", nor the tradition of fasting on this day, nor Papa Purusha and the entry of sins into food, nor the special connection of this day with Vishnu or Hari, nor the special role of the 11th day in general.  

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  • Nor is there in Manu-samhita.

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  • In the Narada Purana (2.24.12-13)  even  the conversation between the adversary and the supporter of the vrata, wife and husband is given: "Observance of fasting on the day of Hari is not mentioned in the Vedas. Brahmanas who maintain the sacred fires do not accept fasting. Why do you want to observe a ritual alien to the Vedic dharma (veda-bAhya dharmam)?" (Narada Purana 2.24.12-13). In response, the husband admits that the Ekadasis are from the Puranas, but says that they are more primordial and superior than the Vedas. A group of summoned Vedic expert brahmanas agreed with his wife: “You did not compose this from the sight of the sastras, but invented it with your own mind. And it is said that those who maintain the sacred fires should eat at both junctions [of day and night]. of the three varnas must eat the remains of the homa, so how can one harness himself to fasting, especially for the [kings-] defenders of the land? " (2.25.2-4).  

 

  • The Puranas tell stories about how the heroes of the Ramayana and Mahabharata discussed and observed Ekadashi, but in the Ramayana and Mahabharata themselves there are no such stories (about   Rame and Vijaya Ekadashi -  in Padma Purana 6.44,  Bhime and Nirjala Ekadashi in Padma Purana 6.51,   that Gandhari lost her sons because of fasting on mixed Ekadashi in Garuda Purana 1.125.2, Skanda Purana 2.4.33.36-38.

 

  • In the Mahabharata in the southern version of the Kumbhaghonam edition in chapter 14.114  Yudhisthira asks how one should worship in krsna-paksi dvadasi, and Krishna replies: 

zRNu rAjan yathA-pUrvaM tat-sarvaM kathayAmi te. 

paramaM kRSNa-dvAdazyAm arcanAyAM phalaM mama

ekAdazyAm upoSyAtha dvAdazyAm arcayet tu mAm.

viprAn api yathA-lAbhaM pUjayed bhaktimAn naraH 

The supreme fruit of worship in krsna dvadasi

After fasting on Ekadashi, then worshiping me on Dvadashi 

Respecting a brahmana, one with devotion should perform puja. 

He will come to Me-Dakshinamurti, there is no doubt about it  

This is mentioned precisely in the southern version, known for its insertions, and is mentioned only 1 time and no more in any other sections. V  of the same southern version of the Mahabharata there is a similar chapter 13.171 12 dvadasi-vrata are advised.

     Dvadashi

  •   At Brihad Samhita Varahamihira 105.14-15  it speaks of fasting in Dvadasi. 

  • In Narada Purana 1.17 :, 2.121: every shukla-dvadashi fast

  •   In Skanda Purana 2.7.24 is glorified  sukla-dvadasi Vaisakhi, fasting in dvadasi and interruption in trayodasi.

  • Dvadasi-vrata in Agni Purana 188. 

  • Dvadashi is called Hari day in Garuda Purana 1.116.7, Kesava day in Garuda Purana 1.124.3.

  • Ekadashi  in these scriptures it is not Vishnu that is called the day, but Rishis (Garuda 116.6), Yama (p. 48), Rudra (Brihat-samhita of Varahamihira). 

  • Pancharatra:  in the Ishvara-samhita, Dvadashi is emphasized; Ekadashi is not mentioned in the review.  

Dvadashi and Ekadashi

  • Vishnu-smrti 49: "Having fasted on the eleventh day of the light half of the month of Margashirsa, on the twelfth day, let him honor Bhagavan Sri Vasudeva with flowers, incense, rubbing, lighting lamps and food, saturating fire and brahmanas." 

  • Kurma Purana  2.26.32-33: "one should fast on the 11th day and worship Purushottama on the 12th through [worship] a brahmana ... the 12th day of the bright half belongs to Vishnu",

  •   Kurma  2.34.105-106 "One should abstain from food on Ekadashi-tithi and worship on Dvadashi of the light half", 

  • in Padma Purana 6.233.2-8: "today all these people who were fasting the previous day, now, with the rising of the Sun on Dvadasi, they worship Me with great faith and devotion along with Lakshmi and Tulasi." 

  • Srimad Bhagavatam 9.4.30: "After three days of fasting, Ambarisa, having bathed in the Yamuna, performed the ceremony of worshiping Hari in Madhuvan." His fast is twice called dvadasi-vrata, and the word ekadasi is not even used.  

 

Puranas and Ekadashi

  • Narada Purana 1.120 briefly describes the 24 Ekadashi years.

  • Vishnu-smrti 49: "Having fasted on the eleventh day of the light half of the month of Margashirsa, on the twelfth day, let him honor Bhagavan Sri Vasudeva with flowers, incense, rubbing, lighting lamps and food, saturating fire and brahmanas." 

  • Kurma Purana 2.26.32-33: "one should fast on the 11th day and worship Purushottama on the 12th through [worship] a brahmana ... The 12th day of the bright half belongs to Vishnu", 

  • in Kurma 2.34.105-106 "One should abstain from food on Ekadashi-tithi and worship on Dvadashi of the light half", 

  • in Padma Purana 6.233.2-8: "today all these people who were fasting the previous day, now, with the rising of the Sun on Dvadasi, they worship Me with great faith and devotion along with Lakshmi and Tulasi."

  • Brhad-brahma-samhita: In verse 3.10.3, observing Ekadasi is one of the three most important things for a Vaisnava, and chapter 4.5 is entirely devoted to Ekadasi-vrata. True, this is clearly a late text, since it is not listed in other pancaratra agamas. 

  • Lakshmi Tantra 10.41. “One must know the deity that performs the maintenance, creation and dissolution, accompanied by all the instruments on whose instructions the universe stands.” In Ch. 7-8 describes the worship of such a God of the universe by the method of annual gates. The basic annual gate for all varnas and women is from sunset dashas to sunset dvadasi, 12 months from [shukla-pakshi] karttika. 

  • Pancharatra:  In the Parama-purusha-samhita there is a chapter 10 on Ekadasi-vrata. Brihad-brahma-samhita: In verse 3.10.3, observing Ekadasi is one of the three most important things for a Vaisnava, and chapter 4.5 is entirely devoted to Ekadasi-vrata.

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The first stone inscriptions about  Ekadashi

Ekadashi in epigraphy (inscriptions on memorial plates, discs, etc.).

  •   Dynasty Vakataka (200-550 AD), inscriptions in their honor inform about gifts in Dvadashi or Trayodashi

  • the book about the Kalachuri dynasty (7-13 centuries) mentions gifts in shukla-trayodashi

  • Ekadashi gifts are mentioned in the Chalukya Badami inscriptions (655-753)  

  •   Yadavov (850-1330)

  • Ekadashi is clearly referred to as the "day of Hari" in the Kannada inscription at Hebbal, which dates back to 1248. 

  • In Kanchipuram there is an inscription from 1230 that the king observes Ekadashi-vrata as the best of the gates.

The geography of all these inscriptions is central and southern India.

 

Where are the hours of leaving the post described?

  • In Sattvata-samhita (8.80, 134-135) the exact time is indicated in the above  Puranas too.

  • Verses HBV 13.229-230, 236 hint that this is done in the morning, although it is not explicitly stated.

  • It is said that modern calculations are based on  Vishnudharmottara Purana, but in the extant text of Vishnudharmottara there are no such verses. There is a similar phrase only in   Nirnaya-amrita  and Madana-ratne. Nirnaya-amrita is a treatise of Alladanatha of the 15th century, Madana-ratna is a treatise of the 15th century, written for the ruler of Madanasimha.

 

Ban on pulses

  •   In Pancaratra, in all the descriptions of Ekadashi, there is not a word about pulses, the need to follow all one's life; it is not said that the 11th day is the day of Vishnu or the day of Hari, a day somehow especially connected or dedicated to Him. Also, the meaning of abstinence from food has not been explained, what is the meaning of this.

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  • In every article or note, the word "pulses" is constantly looming. But in the primary sources  this prohibition is not mentioned anywhere

  • In the modern translation of the story about Papa Purusha, it is written 7 times "grain". However, in  in the original (22.45-52) the word anna was used 5 times, and at the end it said  na bhoktavyaM na bhoktavyaM na bhokavyaM kadAcana - "do not eat, do not taste, never taste". 


Anna has secondary meanings "rice, grain", but the primary meaning is "food", Ashtanga-hridaya-samhita 1.6 lists 7 types of anna: cereals, legumes, dishes, meat, vegetables, fruits, herbs. To designate grain, cereals, there is a separate word dhAnA , dhAnya .  From shruti it is clear that originally anna  meant food in general, food. Medieval commentators Shankar and Madhusudana decipher anna as "eaten" (annAt bhakSyAt; annAt bhuktAt),  and modern Prabhupada understands it as "cereals."  

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In the text about Papa Purusha  If he eats on Ekadashi, he receives all sins, goes to hell, degrades, and so on. And with a legume substitution, it turns out "you can eat, even Ekadash feasts are acceptable, just exclude legumes."  

 

  • A similar situation is with Bhakti-sandarbha - ekAdazyAM tu yo bhunkte "who eats on Ekadashi",  ekAdazyAM na bhoktavyam "He does not partake of Ekadashi." The modern Prabhupada adds the words "grain or gave" to the text, but the author of the text did not write such words: atra vaiSNavAnAM nirAhAratvaM nAma mahA-prasAdAnna-parityAga eva "Here Vaishnavas are in a state of non-eating, even mahaprasad food is rejected." 

  • SB 2.3.4, medieval Sridhara and Visvanatha write annAdyaM bhojyaM bhakSyaM ca "[this is] what is swallowed and what is chewed", and modern Prabhupada writes "grains."

  • SB 10.7.5 medieval Sanatana also understands annAdya as bhakSya-bhojya, what is chewed and what is swallowed, and modern Prabhupada means "abundance of grains and other foods."


 

What are described  real relief in the post ?

  •   Narada 2.12.91-92 , 2.23.74 , Padma 6.38.19, 20-27 , Garuda 1.136.3 allow food nakta (the night before), ekabhakta (once a day) and ayachita (unsolicited), but the types of food allowed are not specified ...

  • Narada 2.24.7-9 allows for weak roots, fruits, milk and water. But boiled food, vegetables, nuts, sugar, sour cream, cottage cheese and other milk derivatives are still not mentioned.

  • Hari Bhakti Vilasa: four verses allow fruit and milk, three roots, one ghee.  

The "tidal" influence of the moon on water in the body 

Over the past decades, to explain the reasons for fasting, there have appeared  theory about special  influence  The moon is on the water in the body and on the senses.   

 

Yes, the Vedas speak of a special connection between the Moon and the mind (Subala-up. 5, Brihad-aranyaka-up. 2.5.7), but there is no particular influence of the 11th phase on the mind or body. Shastras (Matsya Purana 123.30-35, p.411-412, 3.2-3.4) influence  Moon on ocean tides with  Ekadashi  do not tie.

  If this is true why no one  haven't said that before?  

Ekadashi in the modern world is explained only by Vaishnavs. The logic of the rituals using the year and time cycles is explained only in the brahmanas, and the Vaishnavas have not studied the brahmanas for a long time.